Ed Hollingsworth, Manufacturing Engineer for Powertrain Engineering at Ford Motor Company talks about how an affinity for drawing and repairing things at home led him to a manufacturing career, what he learned from Japanese senseis, and material flow design and ergonomics for manual workstations.
Work Instruction, Toyota Production System, Manual Operations
Intro:[Background music] Pashi presents the Means Of Production, a podcast about what it really takes to build, maintain, and scale the processes that produce the physical products that power our world. Every episode, we ask a manufacturing expert to walk us through the nuts and bolts of how they do their job. We explore how and why they got into manufacturing, dive deep into the hardest problems of solvent production lines and discuss their thoughts on what's broken in manufacturing today and how those things can be fixed. This podcast is hosted by me, Siddhit Sanghavi, US Operations lead, and former assembly engineer at Ford Motor Company.
Siddhit: Hey everyone this is season one, episode seven and Here with me today is Ed Hollingsworth. He is a process engineer with powertrain manufacturing engineering at Ford Motor Company, and my former colleague and partner. I worked with Ed very closely, so welcome Ed to the podcast.
Ed: Thank you, how are you today?
Siddhit: I am very good, thanks for asking and before we get started, Ed is going to read out a disclaimer.
Ed: I work at Ford Motor Company, but this is my own opinion and not the opinion of Ford Motor Company. I am not a spokesman for Ford Motor Company official or otherwise.
Siddhit: So Ed, how are you, how are things going during the era of COVID? How was work, how was the family?
Ed: Well, it's a bit of a change working during this pandemic period. At first, it was quite a bit of a struggle, but in terms of just not being able to connect, correspond and work with other individuals inside of the organization. But some things that has changed that have moved to the positive has been, now I'm going into the office, well not to the office. We haven't been able to report a Ford Motor Company inside the office ever since March 14th of last year, 2020. But what we've done is we have protocol; we try to work a protocol where I've been going inside of the plant. The Livonia transmission plant, maybe about three to four days a week, sometimes on Saturday. So being able to interact work with the product, being able to interface inside the manufacturing environment on a limited basis has been tremendous for me to be honest with you. So I don't feel like I'm caught up. My health is good and quite frankly, I think it's a positive being able to kind of a hybrid type of relationship in terms of reporting to work where we're not doing a whole bunch of face time we're going in and beginning modifications installations of our Kits, what we call our Kits is essentially upgrades to our existing equipment and working out and developing processes, working with our team leaders and technicians on the line to improve productivity. So we've been doing quite a bit and it's been working, I think productivity has actually increased because we're not wasting time as much as what we might've been doing in the past.
Siddhit: That sounds great, Ed. Glad to know that you're safe and healthy and I like how you're taking it and that's how many people have learned to take it, is to look at it as a hybrid approach to work. And I like that and thanks for clarifying what Kits are, to elaborate further. These are bunches of like items that will go on the line and schedule upgrades so that additional functionality can be put on to a station. It's part of modifying a process and then relaunching that station and that is what Ed is talking about here. So Ed has been with me as a process engineer and an assembly engineer and an industrial engineer. We worked quite closely on the 10 speed rear wheel drive transmission, that Ford developed for its vehicles like the Mustang and F-150s and its Transit vans. And he's also had quite a bit of a career with various aspects of industrial engineering. So Ed, why don't you tell us, what made you get into this field in the first place and how did you end up in this role eventually?
Ed: Well, I'm glad you asked, when I was in high school, I majored in mechanical design. I always had an interest in being able to draw, free hand drawing, but I didn't have that particular talent. Once I found out that I can actually use triangles and different tools to do some drafting, some French curves, T squares and then I was able to create things like gears and different types of tools. It was the creative portion of it for me, I think to be honest about it, initially some of the work that started me off was working, I'm from a big family, I was born in Harlem USA and grew up in Brooklyn in Queens, New York, and my father, he was somewhat of a Jack of all trades master of none, but he always involved me and my brothers in just working together, that was the essence of it. Whenever we did something, we put up lights or we worked on doors as kids. It was 10 of us inside of my family, we were always breaking things, so he was always trying to fix stuff. My father didn't have a formal education, he had a fourth grade education but he was never afraid to try to be self-reliant, that was what it was. It was something that we had to depend upon ourselves to be, we didn't have the funds to have a specialists coming to our house, fixing, or correcting things along those lines right there.
So we found different ways and he tried to do his best, but a lot of it that was done, the functionality was there, but the cosmetics and the finishing left something to be desired, we didn't do much in terms of housing. We might do some plaster or painting and things along those lines; I think we did a real good job of painting with my brothers involved that sort of thing right there. Whenever we would all come together on a major project and that's the way we connected and we correlated. I went to a specialized high school in New York city, Jamaica Queens that was a prep school for St. John's university. So it was Thomas A Edison technical and vocational high school and then I was exposed to drafting where I was able to utilize triangles and T squares and graphic pencils, those types of initial drafting devices before the influx of what we call the auto call desktop things along those lines. This was prior to the automation, well that right there you know that intrigued me, I was like hey, now I can actually draw. So that creative aspect right there was one of the things that initially gave me interests inside of the mechanical engineering portion. So from there again, my family is from North Carolina and we would travel South during the summers, my father and mother would load us all up and we would travel South. And one of the schools that my mother would talk about is North Carolina, ANT University in Greensboro, North Carolina and she set in my mind early on that that was something that she wished for me to attend whenever I graduated from high school. So that was something that was kind of initially, planted inside of my mind. So whenever the opportunity came and I had graduated from a technical program at Thomas Edison, technical enhancement, as well as the traditional high school diploma, I said to myself, I really like the mechanical drawing, it just sounded like mechanical engineering. So I got into mechanical and industrial engineering in which I was blessed to have the opportunity to go there.
Then I received the full engineering scholarship from Clark Equipment Company to continue, it was my work. So that was what first got me into the field, how I started and then upon graduation, I was offered an opportunity to work for General Motors in upstate New York, in Rochester, New York, there products division of General Motors, where we made various types of small motors in those locations, wiper motors, door lock motors, wipers systems, air conditioning motors, those sort of things. I stayed there for maybe about, I think probably about 10 years or so, starting a family, buying my first house probably a year after I first started there and then I started to develop my career. Right around 1990, I developed the interest, the industry was changing to lead manufacturers Japanese influence in the manufacturing and I think it was a more of a quote just in time manufacturing in that particular methodology of manufacturing in terms of pulling material through the system, as opposed to pushing material. So with that an opportunity came about for me, the offer was made to me by a joint venture, which was Allied Signal but they used to trade name of Bendix during the seventies and eighties, the Bendix name was well known in the manufacturing industry, but they were acquired by Allied Signal. So I took on that particular opportunity, I moved my family from upstate New York to Nashville, Tennessee, actually I was working in Gallatin, but I was living in a small town, Seville which is a bedroom community within the country music timeframe, those particular artists Johnny Cash and different people of that nature.
But anyway, there I was working directly for the Japanese, the name of the company the joint venture was Bendex, JKC is Doshi Kiki corporation headquartered in Japan. So there, I learned how to speak up some conversation Japanese, as well as learning directly from my sensei [inaudible13:59] on how Lean manufacturing works more line production, delivery systems and things along those lines. So I was working more as a manufacturing, industrial engineering doing a process development type work in those locations. And then then another opportunity came about General Motors asked me to return to their organization due to the expertise that I had developing lean manufacturing and they were looking for an individual with my skillset, so to speak and so I returned, so I moved to Michigan, that's when I moved to Michigan in 98, and I started working for GM power trade operations. Once I was there, they seen that I was very proficient in AutoCAD because I had developed some of it with previously with General Motors before I had left to move South Nashville. But then I started working as a corporate engineer at that point, I was doing facilities development and layout work for the tech center for General Motors and then in 2000 actually, Ford made me an offer to work within their development of Lean manufacturing at their facility here in Dearborn. So I took on that particular position and that was actually within the MPL the materials planning and logistics department and what we were doing in this particular section, we were around developing material movement through a combined system cards developing those types of that particular type of processing at various plants, the Wixom plant and the Norfolk plants, all of our, what we call vehicle operations which is vehicle assembly operations, so that we would begin the influx of lean manufacturing there. As well as some of the work that we started doing with six-sigma methodology and value stream mapping, and six-sigma work itself. This was some of the work that was also developed whenever I was working with the Japanese in Tennessee but they rolled over to green belt development, black belt development inside of Ford Motor Company.
This was something that was developed initially, probably back in 95 through Jack Welch which was the CEO of GE and the CEO of Aligned Signal at that time. But then finally, I think the the big three started catching up with that reproducibility that type of manufacturing in regard to how to monitor operations and quality levels, because there was some challenges with the quality levels of the big three prior to 1990, I would think for the most part, so we took on a lot of those type of changes and upgrades and responsibilities and cultural changes, which were huge and biggest cultural change was making things very obvious. Clearing out things inside of the workplace to only the things that was needed we have to do some clearing. We would go to different stages of [Speaking Japanese18:11] Japanese terms in terms of just cleaning out everything and throwing away things that wasn't necessarily, inside the work environment and making things obvious and what needed to be done standardizing our processes and the way that we actually work.
So again, I became what you would call a lean manufacturing expert at that time, doing a lot of error proofing as well and moving and leading Kizan activities where we would involve our workers at the plants to improve on the operations and the way that we went ahead and had material delivered to the plant directly to the plant from the suppliers in smaller lots so that they were delivered just in time. So that kind of gave me a start and I've continued through that right inside of my manufacturing experience. So I've been involved in all different types, I've always tried to take a shot gun effect to engineering, not just being a mechanical engineer or an electrical engineer or tooling engineer, process engineer, it's all types, so we try to put that under the umbrella of a manufacturing engineer all of those types of skill sets which quite, frankly, increase my market value and my skillset as well. I hope that answers your question.
Siddhit: Oh yeah, more than enough. That was a very comprehensive and a very fascinating Ed, and I'd like to break that down a little bit, because it was quite a lot of stuff that was useful in there. I'd like to start with you mentioning that you liked drawing, but you taught you weren't skilled in the artistic side of it and I remember that one of your three sons is actually more of an artist now, right? He's doing movies and stuff like that, so I guess that art side did go onto your children, whereas you decided to go into the more technical side of drawing, which is very, very critical in mechanical engineering and I remember my own days drawing with pencil and paper with a drafting machine. So yeah, those are the fundamentals of being able to design machines and then you spoke about that whole era, right? So you were a professional in the era where Japanese methodologies were getting very, very popular and by the seventies, they had become all the rage in the United States and it's a great time for you to have learn directly from Japanese sensei and really learn lean manufacturing and the whole Toyota production system from the Japanese. So I'd say that was a very, very good set of assignments that you had and you mentioned all of the different sections of this methodology, and I'm going to link it in the show notes. Most of you who are in the auto industry probably know most of these, but I'll still link it for those who aren't from the auto industry, which is where the Toyota production system really took hold in the US, right?
Six-sigma was developed by Motorola to ensure that all of the production was inside plus three-sigma and minus three-sigma of the mean of whatever their nominal value was. And value stream mapping was where you would draw like a pictorial view of your processes, that where you have working process, taking up your inventory and your space and your time, and try and eliminate all of those. But as 5s like Ed said is seiri, seiton, seiso, seiketsu, and shitsuke which is sort, set in order, shine, standardize, and then sustain, in my days when I used to be an intern, they used to have 5s days when they used to just go and clean everything with their hands. Managers used to come down and literally start pruning, right? They used to clean up stuff with their own hand, get their hands dirty, so a lot of these, I think were lot of discipline into manufacturing all over the world, but especially in the us auto industry. And I think you had a great introduction and a great set of challenges there, which then propelled you to the big three, right. So GM in 98, and I believe powertrain was still in Pontiac at that time, is that right?
Ed: Yeah, I was actually inside of the Pontiac, the Phoenix on that location on Joslin. Actually, my location was downtown Pontiac, it was a good challenge.
Siddhit: Yeah, and if you guys are wondering Pontiac is the city on which the car brand Pontiac is named after, because that's where its main plant was. So I think that was very comprehensive, Ed. Thank you for sharing the journey with us and I want to hear more so let's get onto our next question, which is in all of these assignments and all of your years, like what is the hardest technical problem you faced and if you can walk us through it, right? It doesn't need to be one problem or one day or anything like that. We just want to step in your shoes and see how Ed faced it.
Ed: Well, again initially the development and the use of Kanban cards in of the plants, setting those up inside of large plants, like the Wixom facility, where we were communicating and trying to communicate to the plants and the personnel on how to pull material through the plant. So this was a big change from pushing material, people would be working in silos and they would just say, okay just make these parts right here and we would be building inventory that might not even be needed. So now this was a change, so we only build what is required, what is requested because setting up min-max levels and identify where the materials go at and not have materials on the floor, how much material needs to be at a place itself. This is not really technical work, but it is controlling the operation and the way the material flows itself and that's where a lot of my expertise is at, it has been up until now. Well, now I'm doing more process engineering with the equipment developmental sort of things and then we would sort of trying to get that information and the pickup, keeping those cards clean. So did that they're readable, and we could put that information inside this system's so that they're delivered and they are deliver inside of containers and it has safety levels as part of it, just that type of changing of culture in methodology, I would say was different to the manufacturing operations.
So this was transformational changes that had to occur and then we elevated to the point where we started implementing at the plant auto-call. The auto-call is a automatic method of pulling material requested, replenishment of the determined material at line site. Again, I was working as an engineer inside of the material planning and logistics department, we needed the technical people to understand and lean manufacturing individuals to understand how that particular process work. So we were rolling this out later on inside of our vehicle assembly operations. So let me just give you a little bit of background on what auto-call essentially, would do we would have readers that would be put inside on the assembly line at each particular station. And these readers would recognize the venom book, the vehicle identification notebook, and it would have a bill of materials that has associated with it. The usage, how many pieces to be used on this particular part at this particular station and then it would automatically deplete from that, okay, hey you use two pieces. If that should have been required and then it would generate a list of what is actually needed to be replenished, then you had to do things like set up routes in terms of delivery of the components to the line. We wanted to get away from a fork truck delivery, we wanted to develop what we call a fork free environment. Fork free environment doesn't mean that there's no fork trucks, there are fork trucks for what we would call a call-parts and call-parts would be enlarged gondola pens that were 48 by 45 in size, those sorts of things.
But what we wanted to do was we want to set up small or light parts, small light parts would be in containers, hopefully with some density, 30, 40 pieces per inside these containers. And now we're working from an ergonomic standpoint where we would not allow these containers way more than 30, 35 pounds itself. And they would be delivered into the material flow wracking, which was developed as part of, the trade name is Creform racking. This is flexible, but it is essentially a material flow rack, it's easy to assemble, it's very inexpensive, but it's strong. So those are the types of challenges, technical challenges that we had to put in place, roll it out at each particular company, each automotive company itself. It never really quite took off a powertrain facilities as much, but again it was something that we were successful with and I work with that, I think probably maybe about five or six years of implementing that at our plants and it's still in operation at Ford Motor Company Assembly Plant. And I guess whenever I was working with the Japanese instilled, even with Ford Motor Company, the development of Poka-yoke and that's, essentially is error proofing where we would essentially, have fiber optics in place whenever we would have a Ford operator, whenever they are doing their assembly, to make sure that they were picking the correct part. And if in fact they were not following the process sequence, what we call the OIS at Ford Motor Company it's called a different things at different places. And that's the operational instruction sheet on how to do the assembly, if they didn't have the correct number of parts itself, then we would have to have things like putting in place a visual or an audio obstruction. People want to as an industrial engineer, as a manufacturing engineer, whenever they're working they really don't want to be interrupted. They want to develop, it's almost like a dance, they want to have a rhythm to the work itself and that's what we want to do as we are developing process and as we are developing assembly operations in themselves from the manual standup, I hope that helps.
Siddhit: Yeah, I guess before I break down the other parts of your answer, let me first just say that with industrial engineering, a lot of the work is related to change management, but it's also related to the movement of material, the movement of people and the movement of parts. There's a lot of movement study involved and while it may not seem technical, it is something that bleeds money. If it's not done right and excess inventory or excess movement and the seven types of waste and all of these collectively steal from your revenue. So that is how industrial engineers use all of these techniques that you mentioned that I'm going to go over right now to prevent that bleed, right? So Creforms, they're just floor racks and floor racks are another name for what these are and like you mentioned, the name Creform is associated with it but once these are designed correctly, it is faster and easier for an operator to pick parts because a lot of this is still manual and it may not be the case for different types of manufacturing, like semiconductor manufacturing, or really small items, which are at very high speed. But assembly operations for automotive and other large products, they require you to pick up parts from a place and they have to be at the right quantity, right presentation right variant and the right frequency.
Ed: And orientation.
Siddhit: Yeah very, very true orientation as well, because many of these parts are hard to determine which way they go on to the transmission or engine, or what have you. And designing all this is what Ed used to do and I used to do. And while in fact, this is where I would like to bring up Pashi is that Poka-yoke logic is possible with Pashi, you can put conditional logic inside Pashi's design where you can say that if something matches this value only then you should do this and this is a kind of error proofing that can be done using variables and devices that you assigned into Pashi and create a pretty robust Poka-yoke system. And I link all of these in the show notes, the terms that Ed mentioned and lastly MODAPTS, which you correctly said is the modular arrangement of predetermined time standards, it's kind of a code. It's a way to observe the movements of an operator in what you correctly, likened to a dance where you are in the groove doing this process, and you have a certain muscle memory and the operators know best how to do this efficiently and you will record those movements in a kind of code, which surprisingly is very, very accurate as to how long it would take a standard human being off a certain weight and height to perform and it is captured through the system and it is approved by all of the unions. It is approved by all of the companies, it has some solid concepts behind it, and it's a great conversation in itself for a later time. But these are the building blocks of industrial engineering, the way I learned, they're pretty interesting for anyone interested in this side of production. So thanks Ed, that was a good answer and did you have like any other non-technical challenges that you particularly remember or that was what you want to do say?
Ed: You know what, I did have a a non-technical challenge and actually, it was fascinating. It's funny how life blends into different tangents of each other. I was trying to improve the productivity, whenever I was inside of Tennessee of simply getting valve-bodies out of, we were making brake boosters at that particular location for the big three, as well as the Mitsubishi and many of the Japanese transplants here in the US. And so, as opposed to picking parts of valve strings, as opposed to picking those up individually one at a time, we needed a method to be able to quickly empty that box, that container, and the container itself in terms of size was probably I think I'd say 24 by 17 inches high. So it was as a sizeable box, it was sizable toll or container, so what I did was, I'd seen at this magic show and I was like notice that this guy was able to empty this container with like the strike of a hand. So I talk with him when I asked him how he did this after the show itself, so he showed me that particular magic trick. So the essence of the magic trick was, he had little holes, he had a firm sheet in the bottom of the tote itself. So it was just a solid sheet that was the dimension of the container 24 by 17 and it was a solid sheet lightweight, but it was a solid sheet. But the container itself, he modify the container so that it had about four or five holes at certain points, on the ends, on each particular corner and then in the center. Now these containers would be, the parts themselves would be stacked like two or three levels high. So we would have to have different layers, that's what it was layers inside the container. I remember it was like 17 inches high, in the part itself. So now I had the ability, I want to get all these parts out all at one time and still maintain without them spilling, essentially or me losing control of them. So what we did, we set up an apparatus and the apparatus itself had some columns or some shafts that was less than the diameter than the holes at the bottom of the tote that we were talking about. I hope you can visualize this, well whenever you set the tote, with the holes in the bottom on top of this station apparatus where these shafts were standing up, everything inside the container raised out of it.
Siddhit: Oh, I see.
Ed: All at one time, so whenever that happens, now that we were putting it into a vibratory feed system for the operator. Again, part presentation we still need these parts to be vertical for the operator to easy grab, we don't want people moving away from the station. Every time somebody bumps an operator comes within their particular station, that adversely affects cycle time. We don't want that right there, because again, we were looking at trying to keep a certain cycle time, so we can depend upon a certain JPH, the number of finish jobs per hour to be coming on out. So now we're able to take that top layer off without picking one at a time, now we can pick, let's say for instance, there were 20 pieces at that top layer, now we just take that particular layer and we put it inside the vibratory feed, just slide it down the operation, the second layer would do the same thing. It's small things like this right here, that there was a challenge but you have to be able to kind of think out of the box. Whenever we talk about think out of the box, let's use all the information that we've gathered inside of life, which are simple operations that can be utilized inside of manufacturing. So I remember that particular non-technical issue in terms of feeding material to the line and line replenishment, it's just one of the fun things that I have done inside of lean manufacturing, other things in terms of just 3D layout work, those have been challenging now, but it's so much beneficial.
I'm aging myself, I remember whenever we first was doing layout with General Motors back inside of the eighties, before auto care, we were using a four by four squares to lay up equipment in a 2D plant, it was okay, what we were using and how we were doing that. If you're not changing, if you're not improving, you're getting worse. There's no such thing as it ain't broken, so let's not fix it, man I hate that, but the challenge has to be that you have to be always improving upon and you have to be moving forward. And once we look at is from that perspective and I know I'm kind of preaching here, but I think it's important that I share that with my sons. I say, with the people that I work with that we have to constantly have continuous improvement and it's necessary at the plant itself and the work is done whenever you empower people at that particular level, the assembly operators to be a part of that. Now they have a buy-in, they get us, they got a stake in itself to make anything work at that particular point, because impact on the body itself, they are going to try to minimize or mitigate any type of unnecessary impact to their bodies. So that's the challenge, they're going to always try to find the very best way to do a job, but it has to be consistent, it has to be standardized and quality has to be work in. We can't just do help the skeleton; we forget things or we leave parts out there's reasons from a control standpoint where we do certain things. So those are non-technical issues, but there are still technical that's important inside the operations themselves.
Siddhit: Absolutely, Ed.
Ed: I call it the magic box.
Siddhit: Yeah, absolutely. So Ed, moving on to the fourth question, is that if you had a magic wand to change one thing about how your job works or how this industry works, or this entire field, like what would that be obviously within reason or within limit and why?
Ed: I just think that product engineering and product development as it changes and improvements associated with it. I don't think it in Ford motor company, we work closely enough with our product engineers, they'll just go ahead and say, oh we want to change this right here and some things are just not feasible inside the manufacturing environment. If in fact, we have the correct material delivery system and replenishment for the operators to do the assembly in itself and the types of changes, these changes on the fly, the adversely affect production and all types of what the Japanese called muda, waste inside of our environment, so the elimination of waste of doing unnecessary walking, unnecessary operations, unnecessary steps, having a material from the supplier delivered directly to our plants in small lots just in time, inside of our plans, having access to that so that we don't again have unnecessary materials. It's changes that has to occur, obsolescence that has to occur. I'm all about eliminating waste, so as soon as we identify it because that right there comes off bottom line, that's a pet peeve of mine and I believe all manufacturing personnel, that would be my magic wand.
Siddhit: Yeah, cool that is where a lot of the operations lose revenue in very small quantities that are hard to perceive and they all count, they all add up and now you realize that you have so much inventory somewhere, or you have too much movement from one line to the other line because they are not planned in a way that they are next to each other/ small things like that can increase your overall lead time, or it can increase just the value of product just locked up in inventory. So absolutely, and what you're saying is not just like an unrealistic wish, but something that industrial engineers strive to achieve every day, which is to reduce all of these mudas. So thanks Ed for that answer and one question that I guess I don't tell my guests in advance and it's like a fun surprise question to close out. The conversation is if this was 2051, or if your grandchild were to step into a factory in 2051, or you magically went forward in time. What would you see in the factory, if you stepped into a factory?
Ed: Wow, inside the factory itself, well I'd like to still keep people inside of factories working together, but repetitive tasks, I think that we would see more robots doing, repetitive tasks itself. I look at my sons, my youngest son, I think he does the same type of work that you do as a matter of fact, I meant to tell you, what he is a data analyst, a software engineer for a company called Slalom and Slalom is working on doing dashboard development, using SQL and different types of software programs and you just become more technical definitely than even I am. Because mechanical engineering maybe not required or asked for sought after, as these type of technical work themselves. I would like to see, inside of the manufacturing environment, inside of all plants noise levels reduced, lighting increased for personnel. I don't cannot believe that I guess easier for me to say, that what I would not like to see on manufacturing plants with a bunch of robots running the whole show and essentially puppet. I think the especially, in American plants the need for the ingenuity, the creativity of people being involved inside of manufacturing operations is critical, but high labor operations that are adversely affecting our ergonomic changes, all of those operations need to be eliminated, that's the focus. Where we can introduce harm or challenge to facilities, I would like to see entire plants operate without forklifts, these are dangerous inside of the plants itself. I'd like to see the levels of safety improved, where we're improving the way that we operate and everybody being accountable for one another.
Siddhit: Yeah, I hear you Ed and I recognize some of the points you're making. And yeah, by 2051 we would think that all of that could easily be sold because it's not like we are not making progress. Plants are quieter and cleaner than they were maybe in the fifties and sixties, so we should be going in that direction. So yeah, thank you for sharing those thoughts with us and thank you so much for being on the show and sharing all of your life experiences over a career that has spanned many, many years, and all of your expertise in industrial engineering and lean manufacturing. I think we learned a lot today, so thank you so much for talking to us today.
Ed: Well just so you know, I'll close with this, I have been a manufacturing engineer for 40 years. Can you believe that? 40 years, this particular year 2021, made my 40th years, starting as a professional, manufacturing engineer. And then I got to tell you this right here, I've benefited at tremendously from knowing you working directly with you. I had never worked with an individual, that was from India directly and I had these preconceived notions of what Indian people were and what they ate and I had no idea. You open the eyes, you expanded my comfort zone, you opened my eyes to so many different things and I just learned so much from you the way that you took your approach, the way that you were so focused on continuous improvement, even though we had to fight tooth and nail to make it happen and I just respected the way that you did your work. And you've helped me on so many different levels and it's opened my eyes to stuff that I just wasn't aware of and I was kind of blind to, so I really appreciate your friendship and then we developed a friendship as well of that. Started me looking at things from another perspective that prior to working with you, I just didn't have, and I think I'm better because of it, so I thank you.
Ed: Thank you Ed, thank you so much for the kind words and the feelings absolutely mutual. Your techniques of how you manage relationships and how you get people to do what the team needs, I think it's something I can learn from. And yeah, it's been great to know you and work with you and again, thank you for spending your time to come and talk on this podcast and yeah, take care.
Siddhit: Thank you so much, have a good day.
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